Affluent Neglect

Society expresses great concern for poor, underserved children and the increased likelihood they may lack access to health care and education, or that they may turn to drugs or crime in adulthood. Less attention is paid to children of affluent parents who have their own set of problems. Emotional neglect often goes unnoticed or unreported, which may…

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What is Dialectical Behavior Therapy?

Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT), developed by Marsha Linehan, Ph. in the 1980s, is a type of talk therapy originally designed for high-risk, suicidal people diagnosed with borderline personality disorder. Today, DBT is used to treat people struggling with a range of complex and intense emotions, including substance abuse and addiction, PTSD, bipolar disorder, eating disorders,…

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Benefits of Yoga in Addiction Treatment

In general terms, yoga is an exercise that benefits the body, mind and spirit through an integration of breathing techniques, strengthening exercises, postures and meditation. There are many types of yoga; all are beneficial. Although yoga is a centuries-old practice, it is a relatively new treatment modality in the field of drug and alcohol addiction. Acceptance…

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Why Some People Think Sex Addiction Doesn’t Exist

Does sex addiction really exist? Is sexual addiction a true disorder? Or is hypersexuality just an excuse for irresponsible behavior or infidelity? Those are complicated questions, and even experts in the world of behavioral health and addiction will probably never agree on the answers.  Many people think hypersexuality should be classified as an addiction. They…

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Mental health and wellbeing

Personality disorders treatment centre

At Paracelsus Recovery, our treatment programmes for personality disorders are centred on helping you regain control over your emotions, thoughts and behaviours. All of our treatment programmes are individually tailored and we only ever treat one client at any given time.

One Client at a Time

Unparalleled staff to patient ratio of 15:1

How do we treat personality disorders

Four-week residential treatment

A day at Paracelsus Recovery


Exclusive personality disorders treatment

At Paracelsus Recovery, we provide treatment for all types of personality disorders. Upon arrival, we will conduct a thorough psychiatric evaluation to identify which personality disorder you are struggling with, its severity and whether any other mental health conditions are present. We also provide an extensive medical check-up, comprehensive laboratory tests, a functional health assessment and a lifestyle assessment. With this information, we design a comprehensive treatment programme based on your unique set of needs.

During treatment, you will work with a core psychotherapeutic team consisting of a psychiatrist, a live-in therapist and a specialist psychotherapist. Working in a collaborative and close manner, the core team will help you process and overcome the underlying causes of the personality disorder.

We also provide biochemical restoration and functional medicine to rebalance your cellular, neurological and biological health. Complementary therapies such as yoga, reflexology and acupuncture are included, as appropriate, to strengthen the mind-body relationship.

Our psychiatrist can prescribe medication, but will only do so when symptoms remain after other forms of therapy have proven ineffective.

We can treat personality disorders at our inpatient treatment centres in Zurich and in London.

Gabor Maté, In the Realm of Hungry Ghosts: Close Encounters with Addiction
What we call the personality is often a jumble of genuine traits and adopted coping styles that do not reflect our true self at all but the loss of it.

360-Degree Treatment Approach - The most extensive and comprehensive treatment worldwide

Medical Check-ups
& Treatments
Eye Movement Desensitisation
and Reprocessing (EMDR)
Interval Hypoxic
Hyperoxic Treatment
Probiotic Therapies
& Psychonutrition
Lifestyle &
Nutritional Counselling
& Bioresonance
& Acupuncture
Personal Training
Types of personality disorders

Cluster A

Cluster-A personality disorders are characterised by abnormal patterns of thought and behaviour. These include

Paranoid personality disorder (PPD) - A person with a paranoid personality disorder is very distrusting of others. They can become quite hostile if they feel as though someone is trying to harm them.

Schizoid personality disorder (SPD) - A schizoid personality disorder is a relatively uncommon condition. It is characterised by an excessive avoidance of social activities and an inability to express emotion.

Schizotypal personality disorder (STPD) - A schizotypal personality disorder is characterised by the presence of unusual beliefs and difficulty forming relationships. Schizotypal personality disorder can also lead to hearing voices, social anxiety and an inability to express a wide range of emotions.

Types of personality disorders

Cluster B

Cluster-B personality disorders are characterised by intense emotional and unpredictable behaviour. These include

Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) - If someone has an antisocial personality disorder, they lack empathy or remorse, exhibit a complete disregard for others and can be both psychologically and physically aggressive. These symptoms can manifest as antagonising, abusing and manipulating others, persistent lying, and impulsivity.

Borderline personality disorder (BPD) - People with BPD struggle with intermittent feelings of intense emptiness, paranoia, stress and anger. Symptoms of BPD include mood swings, rage and depressive symptoms. People with BPD can struggle to maintain relationships and jobs as the condition can lead to an intense fear of abandonment or rejection, which often triggers uncontrollable fits of rage.

Narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) - Symptoms of NPD include a sense of superiority over others, an inability to feel empathy, a fixation on fantasies of power or success, and a need for constant admiration. NPD can make an individual terrified of intimacy, often to the point of deeply hurting and manipulating (narcissistic abuse) their loved ones to avoid the vulnerability that comes with love.

Histrionic personality disorder (HPD) - A histrionic personality disorder is characterised by a pattern of excessive attention-seeking behaviour that usually starts in early childhood. These include an excessive need for approval, inappropriate seductive behaviour, and hostility when they feel ignored.

Types of personality disorders

Cluster C

Cluster-C personality disorders are characterised by anxious and fearful thinking or behaviour. These include

Avoidant personality disorder (APD) - An avoidant personality disorder is characterised by persistent feelings of nervousness, fear and low self-esteem. Individuals who struggle with an avoidant personality disorder will be afraid of rejection and being judged by others. As a result, they can struggle with other mental health conditions such as generalised anxiety disorder or social phobias.

Dependent personality disorder (DPD) - Dependent personality disorder (DPD) is characterised by low self-esteem, a sense of helplessness, submissiveness and a need for constant reassurance. People with DPD often seek out others who can take care of them and make decisions for them.

Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) - Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) is a personality disorder characterised by extreme perfectionism and a rigid need for order. OCPD is similar to obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), except people with OCD are aware that their thoughts and actions are irrational. In contrast, people with OCPD tend to believe that their actions are more rational.

Understanding personality disorders

When we speak of ‘personality,’ we are referring to the patterns of behaviour, thoughts and emotions that make a person who they are. Our personality is moulded throughout our lives, influenced by our experiences, our childhood, and our biology and is never wholly consistent. Instead, our personality is that core sense of ourselves, which allows us to understand why we are different from others and how to adapt to life’s stressors.

If someone has a personality disorder, they do not have this stable sense of who they are and can find it difficult to respond to reality. They will also find it difficult to differentiate their own emotions from those around them, which can lead to long-term patterns of behaviour, emotions and thoughts that are unhealthy and inflexible.

There is no single cause of a personality disorder, but childhood trauma plays a substantial role in its development. If a child experiences a traumatic event, it will impact all areas of their development. The intense emotions invoked by trauma can shape elements of their personality and influence how they perceive themselves, others and the world. Personality disorders usually begin during childhood or adolescence.


A personality disorder is a mental health condition characterised by long-term patterns of inflexible thoughts and behaviours that detrimentally impact a person’s life. One of the most challenging aspects of a personality disorder is that they are egosyntonic. This means that when someone has a personality disorder, they may not realise that they have a mental health condition as they cannot recognise that their symptoms are causing them distress.

As with all types of personality disorders, there is no cure for NPD but treatment can be effective. The best treatment for a narcissistic personality disorder is based on intensive psychotherapy to help individuals develop social skills and construct a self-image that is more reflective of reality.

The most effective treatment for borderline personality disorder is based on specialised psychotherapy, lifestyle adjustments, and medication (if deemed necessary). Mentalisation-based psychotherapy is a particularly effective method that was designed specifically for BPD.

The most common cause of personality disorders is trauma in early childhood. Experiences such as abuse, absent parenting, neglect and violence can lead to personality disorders (and many other mental health conditions). Brain chemistry and genetic factors also play a role in the development of a personality disorder.

Our treatment programmes will always depend on the individual’s unique circumstances, lifestyle and personal history. Our treatment programmes for personality disorders are centred on intensive psychotherapy and biochemical restoration. Our expert psychotherapists will use the most cutting-edge techniques to help you overcome any related traumas and to develop healthier ways of responding to your emotions. The psychotherapy sessions will also include psychoeducation to help you become more aware of how the personality disorder has impacted your life.

Meet the team responsible for personality disorders treatment

Meet the team